Course name | Date

Persistent Fetal Vasculature

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Maria Paula Fernandez, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Audina M. Berrocal, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Berrocal, Fernandez
Persistent Fetal Vasculature This patient with past ocular history of leukocoria was referred forretinal evaluation. Ophthalmological evaluation under anesthesia was notable for a cataractous lens with spherical appearance,anterior segment dysplasia andpersistence of the iridohyaloid vessels and tu…

Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Mariam S. Vila-Delgado, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Hilda Capo, MD; Craig A. McKeown, MD; Carlos E. Mendoza Santiesteban, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Capo, McKeown, Mendoza Santiesteban, Vila-Delgado
Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome An infant was brought to the emergency department by his mother referred from his pediatrician after a routine well-child visit. Parents had noticed severe light sensitivity, but patient was otherwise developing well. Patient grimaced to light in both eyes but had poor fix…

Branchio-Oculo-Facial Syndrome and Coloboma

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Mariana Abi Karam, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Craig A. McKeown, MD; Carlos E. Mendoza Santiesteban, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Abi Karam, McKeown, Mendoza Santiesteban
Branchio-Oculo-Facial Syndrome and Coloboma A young child presented with light perception visual acuity in the right eye and white cataract. Some dysmorphic features were also documented such as wide nasal tip, prominent philtral pillars, hypertelorism, telecanthus, right ptosis, and malformed pinn…

Coloboma Associated with Branchio-Oculo-Facial Syndrome

Type: Ophthalmic Images
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Original Contributor(s): Mariana Abi Karam, MD; Craig A. McKeown, MD; Carlos E. Mendoza Santiesteban, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Abi Karam, McKeown, Mendoza Santiesteban

Coloboma associated with a systemic syndrome.

Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Lulwa El Zein, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Craig A. McKeown, MD; Carlos E. Mendoza Santiesteban, MD
Presenter/Faculty: El Zein, McKeown, Mendoza Santiesteban
Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis A child previously healthy, presented to the ED with his mother for new onset right upper eyelid ptosis of few weeks duration. History was significant for variability in eye alignment over the past few months. Exam was notable for right upper eyelid ptosis with MRD1 of -2…

Coats' Plus Disease

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Maria Paula Fernandez, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Audina M. Berrocal, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Berrocal, Fernandez
Coats' Plus Disease An infant born prematurely via emergency cesarean section at 27-weeks due to IUGR and fetal distress weighting 650 g was referred for the evaluation of incomplete vascularization of the retina. After birth, the patient spent 117 days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), w…

Optic Disc Drusen with Structural and Functional Changes

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Mariana Abi Karam, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Hilda Capo, MD; Byron L. Lam, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Capo, Karam, Lam
Optic Disc Drusen with Structural and Functional Changes A young child presented with crossing of the eyes without headaches or associated neurologic symptoms. Visual acuity was OD 20/30 and OS 20/40. Motility examination demonstrated moderate angle esotropia with full versions. Intraocular pressur…

Coats Disease

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Benjamin R. Lin, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): J. William Harbour, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Harbour, Lin
Coats Disease An infant presented with suspected retinoblastoma after undergoing an exam under anesthesia (EUA) with an outside provider. On repeat exam under anesthesia, there were no mass lesions identified on indirect exam or ultrasound. Indirect exam revealed powdery yellow exudative changes an…

Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Michael J. Venincasa, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Audina M. Berrocal, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Berrocal, Venincasa
Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy A child with a history of full-term birth complicated by arrest of descent and resolved neonatal seizure with normal MRI and EEG was referred for evaluation of nystagmus. An examination under anesthesia was required, during which an electroretinogram demonstrate…

Sturge-Weber Syndrome

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Humberto Salazar, III, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Elena Bitrian, MD; J. William Harbour, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Bitrian, Harbour, Salazar
Sturge-Weber Syndrome A child was born with an extensive, bilateral, flat, red facial skin lesion that was initially flat and barely noticeable but over time has grown and become thicker and a deeper red color. He was born at term to a healthy mother, had no other lesions on his body, no other symp…

Optic Nerve Cyst and Coloboma

Type: Ophthalmic Images
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Original Contributor(s): Audina M. Berrocal, MD; Nimesh A. Patel, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Berrocal, Patel

Optic nerve cyst (first image) that over time revealed an optic nerve coloboma (second image).

Ocular Neuromyotonia

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Mariam S. Vila-Delgado, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Hilda Capo, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Capo, Vila-Delgado
Ocular Neuromyotonia A child with a history of left exotropia secondary to a congenital third nerve palsy treated with strabismus surgery and ptosis repair presented with sudden onset intermittent left upper lid twitching and involuntary eye movements. Patient had no previous history of intracrania…

Knobloch Syndrome

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Benjamin J. Fowler, MD, PhD
Faculty Discussant(s): Audina M. Berrocal, MD; Craig A. McKeown, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Berrocal, Fowler, McKeown
Knobloch Syndrome An infant presented to the eye clinic with nystagmus. The patient underwent examination. Initial eye examination revealed horizontal nystagmus, a midline occipital scalp lesion, hypoplastic macula in both eyes, and high myopia (greater than -15.0 D in both eyes). Given a family hi…

Iatrogenic Medial Rectus Transection

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Kevin D. Clauss, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Craig A. McKeown, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Clauss, McKeown
Iatrogenic Medial Rectus Transection Patient presented with acute onset binocular horizontal diplopia and an incomitant left exotropia with severe, but not complete adduction deficit. On orbital imaging, the medial rectus appeared to be completely transected, however the patient maintained some add…

X-linked Retinoschisis

Type: Ophthalmic Images
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Original Contributor(s): Audina M. Berrocal, MD; Nimesh A. Patel, MD; Camila V. Ventura, MD, PhD
Presenter/Faculty: Berrocal, Patel, Ventura
This is congenital retinal dystrophy is caused by a mutation in the retinoschisin (RS1) gene, which encodes for a protein that functions in cellular adhesion. The fundus photo shows a macular stellate pattern caused by schisis or splitting of the retinal layers at the level of the outer plexiform l…

Bilateral Exotropic Duane Syndrome

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Mariam S. Vila-Delgado, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Craig A. McKeown, MD
Presenter/Faculty: McKeown, Vila-Delgado
Bilateral Exotropic Duane Syndrome A healthy 5-year-old male presented with an outward deviation of both eyes since approximately 4 months of age. Motility testing was notable for significant limitation to adduction in both eyes, significant downshoot in the right eye and downshoot and upshoot in t…

Combined Hamartoma of the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Thomas A. Lazzarini, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): Audina M. Berrocal, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Berrocal, Lazzarini
Combined Hamartoma of the Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium A 19-month-old girl with an unremarkable prenatal and infantile history presented with esotropia of the left eye and was found to have a vascularized mass concerning for retinoblastoma. Examination under anesthesia revealed a charcoal …

Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma with Vitreous Hemorrhage

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Benjamin J. Fowler, MD, PhD
Faculty Discussant(s): Audina M. Berrocal, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Berrocal, Fowler
Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma with Vitreous Hemorrhage A five-week-old full-term male with a history of seizures and birth trauma underwent ophthalmology screening. Initial eye examination revealed vitreous hemorrhage. Subsequent examination under anesthesia with multi-modal imaging revealed vitreou…

Coats' Disease with Secondary Pseudoangiomatous Acquired Retinal Gliosis

Type: Grand Rounds
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Humberto Salazar, III, MD
Faculty Discussant(s): J. William Harbour, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Harbour, Salazar
Coats' Disease with Secondary Pseudoangiomatous Acquired Retinal Gliosis A healthy 6-year-old female was referred after she failed her school vision screening in the right eye. Exam revealed a visual acuity of count fingers (CF) at 1 foot in the right eye. Slit lamp examination was unremarkable. Fu…

Pediatric Ophthalmology

Type: Medical Student Education
Include in Catalogue?: Yes
Presenter(s): Chris R. Alabiad, MD
Presenter/Faculty: Alabiad

In this module, we will look at:




Extraocular Muscle


Introduction to Pediatric Ophthalmology