This module takes a closer look at the muscles that move the eyes. We open with a review of basic anatomy reminding ourselves of the names, locations, and insertions of each extraocular muscle. Next we discuss the innervations of these muscles which will help us better understand how different types of injury can affect eye movement.
After reviewing anatomy, we turn to the terminology behind ocular motion. This is an important aspect of learning ophthalmology as these terms are used ubiquitously to quickly and accurately describe the problems we observe when document a patient exam. We also touch briefly on the locations of central and reflexive control for different types of eye movement.
Finally, we discuss the presentations and treatments associated with different types of nerve palsies affecting the extraocular muscles. We learn some basic algorithms which can help us identify what nerves are damaged based on a patient's ability to move his eyes.
Eyes which are fixed in the head would be far less useful than the nimble mobile eyes we take for granted every day. How is it that this motion is coordinated with such fine detail? Let's find out.
Issue Date: 08/01/2020