Topic outline

  • Topic 1: Eyelids


    "The eyes," the saying goes, "are the windows to the soul." If that's the case, the eyelids are the shutters - closing to both shield the eyes from the damaging effects of dust and debris, as well as maintain a normal, moist environment on the eyes themselves.

    In this module, we will look at the eyelids in some depth. Beginning with the anatomy, we'll look closer at what structures make up the eyelids, giving them the strength to defend the eyes, but the flexibility to easily rotate up (or down) and out of the way. We'll then see how to examine the eyelids - what to look for, what details to pay attention to, and what tools we can use in the process. Our attention will then turn to diseases of the eyelids - ptosis, dermatochalasis, the various eyelid malpositions, and eyelid tumors, all of which can adversely impact normal vision.

    The windows to the soul may get most of the attention, but the shutters are important too - and we'll see just how important they are. Let's get started.

    Issue Date: 08/01/2020

  • Topic 2: Tear Drainage System


    A human being, it has been said, is merely "an ingenious assembly of portable plumbing." And while some may argue that human beings are more than just a bunch of pipes, plumbing does play a critical role, especially in the eye.

    The eye is a delicate structure, and needs to be kept moist, a job accomplished by the varied fluids in tears. But the tears need to go somewhere - and for that we have the tear drainage system.

    We'll look closely at this system in this module, beginning with its anatomy and physiology, and see the ingenious solution the body uses to remove the fluids from the surface of the eye. From there we'll take a look at what happens when this system is thrown out of balance, and how it can result in excessive tearing - and then how we can treat these conditions. Along the way, we'll see how to properly evaluate the tear drainage system, and how to look for any of the myriad issues that patients may face when its normal function is disrupted.

    We may be more than just a series of plumbing tubes - but those tubes are pretty important. Let's take a look.

    Issue Date: 08/01/2020

  • Topic 3: Orbit


    The skull is a fascinating jigsaw puzzle of irregular bones. The Orbit, a substructure of the skull, is possibly the most intricate component of this puzzle.

    The orbit both supports and protects the eye. Additionally it's many holes, bumps, and grooves provide safe passage and sturdy attachment points for blood vessels, nerves, and muscles that move the eye.

    In this section, we'll examine the orbit when it's healthy and when it's harboring illness. Starting first with anatomy we'll review the basic structures and familiarize ourselves with how the eye sits in the head. After that we'll turn to cellulitis to better understand how infections of the skin can make their way into the orbit traveling posteriorly and even leading to infections of the brain and sinuses.

    While the eyeball itself gets the majority of attention when we study ophthalmology, the orbit and other supporting structures play essential roles in helping you see the world in front of you.

    Issue Date: 08/01/2020